What acoustic regulations for noise limitation in educational and training institutions ?

What acoustic regulations for noise limitation in educational and training institutions ?

With regard to nursery schools, elementary schools, colleges, high schools, regional establishments for adapted education, universities and establishments of higher education, general, technical or professional, public or private, it is a question that arises in various contexts:

  • for the architect, engineer, technician in charge of the construction or renovation of such an establishment
  • for the head of such an establishment, for for the head of general resources
  • for anyone, working there or passing through (users, parents of students) perceiving that the acoustic comfort leaves something to be desired

In France, the decree of April 25, 2003 relates to the limitation of noise in educational institutions; among other technical regulatory aspects, acoustic insulation, limitation of reverberation and equipment noise are the subject of formalized requirements.

Acoustic regulations for the limitation of noise in educational and training institutions: acoustic insulation between premises

With regard to sound insulation (a major concept for noise limitation and acoustic comfort), the order of 25 April 2003 relating to noise limitation in educational institutions specifies the requirements relating to interior airborne noise to the building in terms of standardized sound insulation weighted DnT,A [1]:

  • when the noise emission is located in a room for teaching, practical activities, administration (as far as the noise reception room is concerned):
    • 43 dB(A) for a room for teaching, practical activities, administration, in a library, an information and documentation center (CDI), a music room, a meeting room, a room for teachers, a moderately noisy workshop
    • 43 dB(A) for a medical room, an infirmary
    • 40 dB(A) for a multipurpose room
    • 40 dB(A) for a catering room
  • when the noise emission is located in a medical room, an infirmary, a low-noise workshop, a kitchen, a closed assembly room, a meeting room, toilets (as far as the noise reception room is concerned):
    • 50 dB(A) for a room for teaching, practical activities, administration, in a library, an information and documentation center (IDC), a music room, a meeting room, a room for teachers, a moderately noisy workshop
    • 50 dB(A) for a medical room, an infirmary
    • 50 dB(A) for a multipurpose room
    • 50 dB(A) for a catering room
  • when the noise emission is located in a stairwell (as far as the noise reception room is concerned):
    • 43 dB(A) for a room for teaching, practical activities, administration, in a library, an information and documentation center (IDC), a music room, a meeting room, a room for teachers, a moderately noisy workshop
    • 43 dB(A) for a medical room, an infirmary
    • 43 dB(A) for a multipurpose room
    • 43 dB(A) for a catering room
  • when the noise emission is in a horizontal circulation, a closed changing room (as far as the noise reception room is concerned):
    • 30 dB(A) for a room for teaching, practical activities, administration, in a library, an information and documentation center (IDC), a music room, a meeting room, a room for teachers, a moderately noisy workshop
    • 40 dB(A) for a medical room, an infirmary
    • 30 dB(A) for a multipurpose room
    • 30 dB(A) for a catering room
  • when the noise emission is located in a music room, a multipurpose room or a sports room (as far as the noise reception room is concerned):
    • 53 dB(A) for a room for teaching, practical activities, administration, in a library, an information and documentation center (IDC), a music room, a meeting room, a room for teachers, a moderately noisy workshop
    • 53 dB(A) for a medical room, an infirmary
    • 50 dB(A) for a multipurpose room
    • 50 dB(A) for a catering room
  • when the noise emission is located in a dining room (as far as the noise reception room is concerned):
    • 53 dB(A) for a room for teaching, practical activities, administration, in a library, an information and documentation center (IDC), a music room, a meeting room, a room for teachers, a moderately noisy workshop
    • 53 dB(A) for a medical room, an infirmary
    • 50 dB(A) for a multipurpose room
  • when the noise emission is located in a noisy workshop (as far as the noise reception room is concerned):
    • 55 dB(A) for a room for teaching, practical activities, administration, in a library, an information and documentation center (IDC), a music room, a meeting room, a room for teachers, a moderately noisy workshop
    • 55 dB(A) for a medical room, an infirmary
    • 50 dB(A) for a multipurpose room
    • 55 dB(A) for a catering room

And also:

  • when the noise emission is located in a rest room (as far as the noise reception room is concerned):
    • 43 dB(A) for a rest room
    • 50 dB(A) for a teaching room, an exercise room
    • 43 dB(A) for an administration room, a staff room
    • 50 dB(A) for a medical room, an infirmary
  • when the noise emission is located in an exercise room or in a teaching room (as far as the noise reception room is concerned):
    • 50 dB(A) for a rest room
    • 43 dB(A) for a teaching room, an exercise room
    • 43 dB(A) for an administration room, a staff room
    • 50 dB(A) for a medical room, an infirmary
  • when the noise emission is located in an administration room (as far as the noise reception room is concerned):
    • 50 dB(A) for a rest room
    • 43 dB(A) for a teaching room, an exercise room
    • 43 dB(A) for an administration room, a staff room
    • 43 dB(A) for a medical room, an infirmary
  • when the noise emission is located in a medical room, an infirmary (as far as the noise reception room is concerned):
    • 50 dB(A) for a rest room
    • 50 dB(A) for a teaching room, an exercise room
    • 50 dB(A) for an administration room, a staff room
    • 43 dB(A) for a medical room, an infirmary
  • when the noise emission is located in an activity space, a meeting room, a games room, a closed gathering room, a reception room, a meeting room, toilets, a catering room, a kitchen, an office (as far as the noise reception room is concerned):
    • 55 dB(A) for a rest room
    • 53 dB(A) for a teaching room, an exercise room
    • 53 dB(A) for an administration room, a staff room
    • 53 dB(A) for a medical room, an infirmary
  • when the noise emission is in horizontal circulation, a cloakroom (as far as the noise reception room is concerned):
    • 35 dB(A) for a rest room
    • 30 dB(A) for a teaching room, an exercise room
    • 30 dB(A) for an administration room, a staff room
    • 40 dB(A) for a medical room, an infirmary

Acoustic regulations for the limitation of noise in educational and training institutions: specifications relating to the limitation of reverberation

With regard to the limitation of reverberation (another major concept for the limitation of noise and acoustic comfort), the decree of April 25, 2003 relating to the limitation of noise in educational institutions specifies the requirements relating to the equivalent absorption area of ​​absorbent coverings placed in horizontal passages and halls with a volume of less than 250 m3 and in courtyards:

  • at least half of the floor area of ​​the considered premises

With regard to the limitation of reverberation, the decree of 25 April 2003 relating to the limitation of noise in educational institutions also specifies the reverberation time [3] for different premises:

  • kindergarten rest room, kindergarten exercise room, kindergarten play room:
    • 0.4 s to 0.8 s
  • room for teaching, music, studies, practical activities; dining room and multipurpose room with a volume at most equal to 250 m3:
    • 0.4 s to 0.8 s
  • medical or social premises, infirmary, toilets, administration, foyer, meeting room, library, documentation and information center (IDC):
    • 0.4 s to 0.8 s
  • room for teaching, music, studies or practical activities with a volume greater than 250 m3, except noisy workshop:
    • 0.6 s to 1.2 s
  • dining room with a volume greater than 250 m3:
    • 1.2 sec as a maximum
  • multipurpose room with a volume greater than 250 m3:
    • 0.6 s to 1.2 s
  • other rooms and circulation areas accessible to pupils with a volume greater than 250 m3:
    • in the case of a volume lower than 512 m3: 1.2 s as a maximum
    • otherwise 0.15 times the cube root of the volume (this latter: iexpressed in m3)

Acoustic regulations for the limitation of noise in educational and training institutions: specifications relating to equipment noise

With regard to noise from equipment, the decree of 25 April 2003 relating to the limitation of noise in educational institutions specifies the requirements relating to noise generated by equipment in the building (with regard to the reception room noise):

  • in libraries, documentation and information centers (IDC), medical premises, infirmaries and rest rooms, music rooms:
    • 33 dB(A) if the equipment operates continuously; 38 dB(A) if operating intermittently
  • in all other premises (mentioned above):
    • 38 dB(A) if the equipment operates continuously; 43 dB(A) if operating intermittently

What can ITS offer for compliance with acoustic regulations for noise limitation in educational and training institutions ?

What ITS can offer for compliance with acoustic regulations for noise limitation in education and training institutions:

  • an acoustic diagnosis:
    • with (on site) airborne noise insulation measurements, equipment noise level measurements e.g. for Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning (HVAC) facilties, reverberation time measurements of premises: involving a qualified measurement technician physical (specialized in instrumental techniques) and sound equipment duly calibrated and verified
    • with the study (based on darwings and involving calculations of sound propagation carried out by an acoustic engineer with extensive skills in building physics) of the issues refering to sound insulation (in relation to the construction systems constituting the envelope of the building and the separations between dwellings: walls, roof, floors, partitions - including doors and windows - for what concerns in particular the sound reduction index of such construction elements) and to the limitation of reverberation (in relation to the area and the sound absorption coefficient of the materials in the concerned premises, given their volume and the conditions of their use)
    • with a comparison of the planned or existing construction provisions with what the acoustic regulations for education and training institutions impose
  • the marketing of solutions for compliance with acoustic regulations for for education and training institutions impose:
    • soundproofing materials and products (acoustic insulation, limitation of reverberation, reduction of equipment noise)
    • works, with guaranteed results

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[1] difference between the sound pressure levels in the noise emission room (or alternatively: in front of a building) and in the reception room, with a corrective term taking into account the reverberation time [2] of the receiving room; when calculated for pink noise: accounting an emission sound spectrum with the same level in dB in each frequency band of 1/1 octave
[2] time (s) required for the existing sound level in a room to decrease by 60 dB when the noise source is instantly interrupted
[3] for the arithmetic average in octave intervals with central frequencies 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz

What acoustic regulations for the limitation of noise in housing - residential buildings ?

What acoustic regulations for the limitation of noise in housing - residential buildings ?

With respect to housing (e.g. residential buildings), including those comprising premises for professional use, technical premises, or business premises, this is a question that arises in various contexts:

  • for the architect, the engineer, the technician in charge of the construction or the renovation of such edifices, individual (houses) or collective (buildings), including when he works in a real estate development company
  • for the president of a co-ownership trustee
  • for anyone living in the building (resident: owner, tenant) perceiving that the acoustic comfort leaves something to be desired

In France, the Decree of 30 June 1999 relates to the acoustic characteristics of residential buildings: being therefore not new, this document should not - nowadays - be referred to as the "new acoustic regulation" ; among other technical regulatory aspects, the acoustical insulation, the limitation of reverberation and the equipment noise impact (determining the acoustic comfort and therefore the habitability of residential buildings) are the subject of specifications.

094 building insulation
sound insulation, limitation of reverberation and equipment noise determine the acoustic comfort and therefore the habitability of residential buildings
   

Acoustic regulation for noise limitation in housing - residential buildings: specifications relating to acoustic insulation

With regard to sound insulation (a major concept for noise limitation and acoustic comfort) , the decree of 30 June 1999 relating to the acoustic characteristics of residential buildings specifies the requirements relating to airborne noise inside the building in terms of standardized sound insulation weighted DnT,A [1] :

  • when the noise emission is located in a room of the dwelling excluding individual garages (with regard to the room of another dwelling as a noise reception room):
    • 53 dB(A) for a main room; 50 dB(A) for a kitchen or a bathroom
  • when the noise emission is in a common circulation inside the building (with regard to the room of another dwelling as the noise reception room):
    • when the transmission room and the reception room are only separated by a landing door or by a landing door and a distribution door:40 dB(A) for a main room; 37 dB(A) for a kitchen or a bathroom
    • in other cases: 53 dB(A) for a main room; 50 dB(A) for a kitchen or a bathroom
  • when the noise emission is located in an individual garage of a dwelling or in a collective garage (with regard to the room of another dwelling as a noise reception room):
    • 55 dB(A) for a main room; 52 dB(A) for a kitchen or a bathroom
  • when the noise emission is located in an activity room, excluding collective garages (as far as the room in another dwelling is concerned as a noise reception room):
    • 58 dB(A) for a main room; 55 dB(A) for a kitchen or a bathroom

Also with regard to sound insulation, the decree of June 30, 1999 relating to the acoustic characteristics of residential buildings specifies the requirements relating to noise coming from the outside space in terms of standardized sound insulation weighted DnT,A [1] :

  • (with regard to the room of a dwelling as a noise reception area):
    • 30 dB(A) for a main room and/or for a kitchen

Acoustic regulation for noise limitation in housing - residential buildings: specifications relating to the limitation of reverberation

With regard to the limitation of reverberation (another major concept for noise limitation and acoustic comfort), the decree of June 30, 1999 relating to the acoustic characteristics of residential buildings specifies the requirements relating to the equivalent absorption area of ​​the absorbent coverings placed in the common circulations inside the building:

  • at least a quarter of the ground surface of these circulations

Acoustic regulation for noise limitation in housing - residential buildings: specifications relating to equipment noise

With regard to the noise of equipment, the decree of June 30, 1999 relating to the acoustic characteristics of residential buildings specifies the requirements relating to noise:

  • generated by a controlled mechanical ventilation system (MVC) (as far as the room in another dwelling is concerned as a noise reception room):
    • 30 dB(A) for a main room; 35 dB(A) for a kitchen
  • generated by an individual equipment of a housing of the building (with regard to the room of another housing as noise reception area):
    • 30 dB(A) for a main room; 35 dB(A) for a kitchen
  • generated by a collective equipment of the building (with regard to the room of another dwelling as a noise reception room):
    • 30 dB(A) for a main room; 35 dB(A) for a kitchen

What can ITS offer for the compliance to acoustic regulations for noise limitation in housing - residential buildings ?

What ITS can offer for compliance with acoustic regulations for noise limitation in housing - residential buildings:

  • an acoustical diagnosis:
    • with (on site) airborne noise insulation measurements, equipment noise level measurements e.g. for Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning (HVAC) facilities: involving a qualified technician in physical measurements (specialized in instrumental techniques) and duly sound measurement equipment calibrated and verified
    • with  the study (based on drawings and involving sound propagation calculations by an acoustical engineer with extended skills in buillding physics) of issues refering to acoustical insulation (in relation to the construction systems constituting the envelope of the building and the separations between dwellings: walls, roof, floors, partitions - including doors and windows - for what concerns in particular the sound reduction index of such construction elements) and to the limitation of reverberation (in relation to the area and the acoustic absorption coefficient of the materials in the common interior circulations)
    • with a comparison of the planned or existing construction provisions with what the noise regulation imposes for residential buildings
  • the marketing of solutions for compliance with acoustic regulations for residential buildings:
    • soundproofing materials and products (acoustic insulation, limitation of reverberation, equipment noise reduction)
    • works, with guaranteed results

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[1] difference between the sound pressure levels in the noise emission room (or alternatively: in front of a building) and in the reception room, with a corrective term taking into account the reverberation time [2] of the receiving room; when calculated for pink noise: accounting an emission sound spectrum with the same level in dB in each frequency band of 1/1 octave
[2] time (s) required for the existing sound level in a room to decrease by 60 dB when the noise source is instantly interrupted

Which environmental protection against noise in France and in the European union?

The environmental protection against noise is a major challenge in France and in Europe, due to the growing noise impact of equipment linked to the housing of the populations of developed countries being concerned, of human activities such as industry and transport infrastructure.

For this, a regulation exists, applicable in France and/or in the European Union and ITS offers solutions.

Regulations on environmental protection against noise in France and in the European Union

  • In France :
    • the Decree of August 20, 85 is on airborne noise emitted into the environment by classified installations for environmental protection with the exclusion of facilities subject to the provisions of the Decree of January 23, 1997 Note: all or part of this document has been modified by more recent texts
    • the Order of 10 May 1995 is on procedures for measuring noise from neighbors
    • the Decree of January 23, 1997 relates to the limitation of noise emitted into the environment by installations classified for environmental protection
    • the Order of 15 November 1999 amends Decree of 23 January 1997 on the limitation of noise emitted into the environment by installations classified for environmental protection and the Order of 14 May 1993 is on the glass industry
    • the Decree of April 4, 2006 is relevant to the preparation of noise maps and of plans for prevention of environmental noise
    • the Order of 5 December 2006 is on procedures for measurement of noise from neighbors
    • the Decree of November 27, 2008 changes the order of 5 December 2006 concerning the measurement of neighborhood noise
    • the Decree No. 95-408 of 18 April 1995 is on the fight against neighborhood noise and amends the Code of Public Health
    • the Decree No. 2006-361 of 24 March 2006 is relevant to the preparation of noise maps and plans for prevention of environmental noise and modifies the code of Town Planning
    • the Decree No. 2006-1099 of 31 August 2006 is on the fight against neighborhood noise and amends the Code of Public Health
  • In the European Union:
    • the Directive 2002/49/EC of 25 June 2002 is on the assessment and management of environmental noise

What does ITS offer in terms of environmental protection against noise in France and in the European Union ?

What ITS offers in terms of environmental protection against noise in France and in the European Union:

  • audits to verify the conformity of facilities of all kinds; noise measurements are made with sound level meters duly calibrated and checked by a qualified technician in physical measurements (specialized in instrumental techniques), possibly with respect to various regulatory criteria:
    • emergence: this is the difference between the A-weighted equivalent continuous pressure levels of ambient noise (considered facilty in operation) and residual noise (in the absence of noise generated by the considered facility, but measured on its operating period) in regulated emergence zones (ZER); depending on the context: 5 or 6 dB(A) during the day and 3 or 4 dB(A) during the night
    • the tonal component: it is present when, considering an unweighted third-octave spectrum, the level in a frequency band exceeds by 5 dB or more the average level of the two adjacent frequency bands from 400 Hz to 6300 Hz or by 10 dB that of the two adjacent frequency bands from 63 to 315 Hz
    • the admissible level at the property boundary - for establishment classified for environmental protection (ECEP) - typically 70 dB(A) during the day, 60 dB(A) during the night
  • sound impact studies:
    • with identification and prioritization of noise sources
    • with a search for ways to improve the acoustic situation and the development of solutions for noise reduction
    • with sizing calculations for soundproofing equipment
  • noise reduction solutions marketing:
    • at the source: acoustic lagging of ducts and pipes, soundproofing covers and enclosures for noisy equipment, soundproofed premises and buildings
    • limiting the propagation of sound emissions using acoustic screens (noise walls)
    • reducing noise emissions from openings intended for ventilation, as well as from the ends of aeraulic networks, e.g. intakes of heat engines and turbomachines, as well as their discharge and exhausts

The activity of ITS in relation to the protection of the environment against noise (e.g. in France and in the European Union) concerns:

  • buildings e.g. Heating Ventilation Air conditioning of houses, apartment buildings and care establishments (in particular: air conditioners, heat pumps)
  • industrial sites e.g. transmission of interior noise towards the exterior, limitation of sound emissions from equipment installed outdoors, reduction of the acoustic power of air intakes, vents, gas depressurization orifices

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Which protection of workers against noise in France and in the European Union?

In France, the decree of August 1990 the 30th is adopted in application of Article R. 235-11 of the Labour Code and is related to the reverberation control of working premises: this text is applicable in France in relation to the acoustic characteristics of working premises and in particular with respect to the noise level decay per doubling the distance to a noise source
In France, the Decree No. 88-405 of april the 21st amends the Labor Code and is on the protection of workers against noise. Note: all or part of this document has been modified by more recent texts
In France, the Decree No. 2006-892 of July 2006 the 19th is related to the safety and health regulations applicable for exposure of workers to risks arising from noise. This decree transposes Directive 2003/10/EC of 6 February 2003 concerning the minimum safety and health requirements regarding the exposure of workers to risks arising from noise.

In France, the Decree No. 2006-1044 of 23 August 2006 is related to the safety and health regulations applicable for exposure to risks from noise of staff employed on board ships
In the European Union, Directive No. 86/188/EEC of 12/05/86 is on the protection of workers against noise Note: all or part of this document has been modified by more recent texts
In the European Union, Directive 2003/10/EC of 6 February 2003 is concerning the minimum safety and health requirements regarding the exposure of workers to risks arising from physical agents (noise): applicable in French law since 2006 and involving in particular a decrease of 5 dB of limits previously in force

Which means for limiting the spread of noise?

The question of means of limiting the spread (propagation) of noise (in relation to various issues) is important for anyone concerned with the acoustic comfort of buildings, the protection of workers or the preservation of the environment.

What means of limiting the spread (propagation) of noise are used specifically inside buildings ?

There is, basically, only one category of means of limiting the spread (propagation) of noise used specifically inside buildings:

that having to do with reverberation control: it comes to the implementation of absorbent materials (according to the possibilities: in the form of a wall lining, and/or in the form of a suspended ceiling or suspended baffles or/and in the form of a floor covering) which make it possible to increase spatial sound decay and therefore, for example, in work premises, to limit the propagation of noise from machines or production lines towards distant workstations (and, what is not nothing: with limiting the amplification of sound levels due to the effects of reverberation, which can also be important in technical rooms). The main characteristic sought is sound absorption (the sound absorption coefficient, which varies according to the frequency, is expressed in %); the performance, in terms of limiting the spread (propagation) of noise, increases with this indicator (provided that a sufficient proportion of the total surface of the walls of a room is treated, and that the distribution of the absorbing surfaces is fairly homogeneous ). In an anechoic room (used for R&D work in acoustics, in industry as well as in universities or engineering schools), the goal is to overcome the physical limits constituted by the walls of a room. tests or a laboratory.

What means of limiting the spread (propagation) of noise are used indifferently inside or outside buildings?

The means of limiting the spread (propagation) of noise used indifferently inside or outside buildings can be classified into different categories:

  • those that have to do with acoustic insulation: it is a question of opposing the propagation of sounds by the implementation of acoustic structures such as elements of the envelope of buildings or constructions inside buildings (consisting of fully enveloping structures: enclosures for noisy equipment, acoustic cabins [1] [2] [3]) e.g. floors, roofs, walls and partitions - which may include doors and windows -. For constructions (housing, tertiary premises, industrial building) the airborne noise insulation illustrates the limitation of the propagation of noise from noisy spaces to the spaces to be protected (interior or exterior). The main characteristic sought is the sound reduction (the sound reduction index, variable depnding to the frequency, is expressed in dB); performance, in terms of noise propagation limitation, increases with this indicator
  • those that have to do with the sound barrier effect: these are constructions (noise barriers walls) that oppose the propagation of noise at specified locations. The main characteristics sought are sound reduction and sound absorption as mentioned above; the on-site performance depends on the positioning, with respect to the device for limiting the spread of noise, of the sound source and the location that one wishes to protect, the difference in the path of the sound waves path  induced by the presence of the noise-cancelling wall (e.g. depending on its height, if it is unlimited in length) and the properties, in terms of sound absorption, of the adjacent surfaces (e.g. the suspended ceiling of an open space, the under-roof of a industrial building)
  • those that have to do with limiting the transmission of structure-borne noise. The main characteristic sought is vibration filtering (the vibration filtering rate, variable according to the frequency, is expressed in %); performance, in terms of noise propagation limitation, increases with this indicator. Decoupling devices (springs when it comes to obtaining low frequency performance e.g. when considering a concept like the "box in the box" type, studs and elastomer supports are useful for the anti-vibration suspension of equipment in technical rooms, boiler rooms as well as for the separation of pipes and ducts)
  • those having to do with noise reduction for aeraulic networks or facilities with pressurized fluids e.g. for openings or vents. The main characteristic sought is the insertion loss (variable according to the frequency, expressed in dB) inseparable from the aeraulic performance (i.e. the total pressure loss) which must not reduce the efficiency of the facility. Silencers are devices for limiting the spred of noise with very variable design, shape, dimensions and construction depending on the context (there are big differences between a silencer in a Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning - HVAC - network, involving low-flow air with near-atmospheric thermodynamic conditions and a gas turbine exhaust muffler involving combustion gas with very high-temperature, high-velocity)

What does ITS offer with regard to means of limiting the spread (propagation) of noise ?

What ITS offers with respect to the means of limiting noise spred (propagation) (depending on the context):

  • audit and advice: on-site sound measurements for diagnosis, acoustic simulations, impact study, sizing calculations for soundproofing equipment
  • marketing of all means of limiting the spread (propagation) of noise: for acoustic insulation (products and constructive systems for all types of construction - building and industry -), for the implementation of acoustic screens (anti-noise walls in all cases, soundproof screens for catering rooms and collective offices), anti-vibration devices, silencers of all kinds (all these materials: developed and built with a view to sustainable performance)

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[1] the cabins for musicians allow the practice of a musical instrument while being freed from the surrounding noise, and without disturbing the neighbors (a certain degree of anechoicity is required inside)
[2] in some workplaces, booths are specially designed constructions to protect people (e.g. machine operators) from ambient noise
[3] audiometric booths are constructions specially designed to allow examinations and tests related to hearing

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